WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP 1951
FREEDOM ABOVE ALL ...
This was one of the most important world championships, the most unusual and the tightest of chess history. First game of the post-war (and first since fourteen), he opposed two champions all opposed, and was marked by a strange beginning (eight players using two completely different openings on the first eight parts) a crossover permanent and dramatic end (the challenger loses the penultimate part acquired roughly a benefit).
Match the conditions agreed at the 1949 FIDE congress in Paris The winner would be the first to score 12 points in 24 games maximum.
In case of tie, Botvinnik retained his title.
The time control was 40 moves in 2 1/2 hours, then 16 moves per hour thereafter, with an adjournment to the next day after five hours of play. According to FIDE rules, the winner would receive 5000 and the loser $ 3,000 USD. If the World Champion (Botvinnik) lost, he had the right to play a tournament in three with the new champion and the winner of the next three-year cycle of the candidates. The parts were played at the Tchaikovsky Concert Hall in Moscow. The secondants were Ragozin and Botvinnik for Flohr, Konstantinopolsky to Bronstein.
Bronstein was an energetic player unlike the "scientific" Botvinnik.
The truth is that Bronstein was at the top of his arriving at the world championship. The website Chessmetrics establishes Elo ranking post: in March 1951, Bronstein is # 1 in the world, while Botvinnik is # 7. Bronstein is the fiery young (27 years) face the Soviet monument (39).
Bronstein Botvinnik defined as a "good Communist." The role of Botvinnik in Soviet chess even today is not well understood because it was generally disliked by the other major Soviet masters.
Both parties before the end of the match, Bronstein was leading by one point. In the twenty-third part with the black pieces, he missed several chances to cancel. The game was adjourned and two shots after the resumption of the game, Bronstein forgot his analysis. He abandoned the 57th shot of the twenty-third part in a choking position, almost in Zugzwang. The software gives the final: the bishops are superiors to knights and will permanently protect the white pawns.
In the twenty-fourth and last part, avoided the complications Bronstein and Botvinnik equalized in the sixteenth hit with blacks.
Some authors have suspected that the threats exerted on Bronstein were causing his defeat of the 23rd game, but Bronstein has never confirmed this, stating simply "psychological pressure" of multiple origins:
"Often asked if I was forced to lose the 23rd part I was and if there was a conspiracy against me to prevent me from taking the title from Botvinnik. A lot of nonsense has been written about it. The only thing that I am prepared to say on this controversy is that I have been subjected to psychological pressure from various sources, and that it was entirely up to me whether to withstand this pressure.
I had reasons not to become world champion because at that time, such a title meant you enter an official world chess bureaucracy filled with formal obligations. Such a position was not consistent with my character. Since my childhood, I appreciate the freedom (...). I am pleased today to have kept the same feelings and to enjoy my freedom. "
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